The module will offer a comprehensive study of “primary sources” – documents, images or artefacts that provide first-hand evidence or “inside” attestation about an historical subject. These testimonies represent the essential tool of reading and study of the past. During the module, the students will learn how to identify and find a variety of available primary accounts (heuristic). They will also learn how to critically survey these accounts and how to distinguish them from the “secondary” sources that reflect various uses and interpretations developed over time (hermeneutics). As a part of their practical course experience, the students will have an opportunity to closely view and analyse various types of primary sources, among which ancient inscriptions and archaeological remains, medieval charters and narratives, early modern letters, and recent state official records. Special attention will be given to audio-visual resources and modern media (film, music, online, social media) and their place in collecting and interpreting the primary historical accounts. The course is essential for students of history and other related branches/interdisciplinary surveys of the humanities and social sciences.